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Windmill Bank
by Sy Schreckinger – ANTIQUE TOY WORLD Magazine – November, 2011

      The Windmill 
—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 
 
Behold! a giant am I! 
Aloft here in my tower. 
Whinny granite jaws I devour 
The Maize and the wheat, and the rye.
And grind them Into flour. 
 
I hear the sound of flails 
Far off, from the threshing-floors 
In barns, with their open doors, 
And the wind, the wind in my sails.
Louder and louder roars. 
 
And while we wrestle and strive,
My master, the miller. stands 
And feeds me with his hands: 
For he knows who makes him thrive,
Who makes him lord of lands. 
 
On Sundays I take my rest:
Church-going bells begin 
Their low, melodious din: 
I cross my arms on my breast,
And all is peace within. 

WINDMILL BANK GRAND AND GRACEFUL are those wind-activated structures so aptly termed "windmills" (Figure 1). One can imagine wispy sails slowly turning in the gentle morning breeze. However, their internal power is revealed by the rotating, weighty granite millstones hidden deep within their structures.
     (Eloquently capturing this scenario is a poem penned by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow entitled "The Windmill", paraphrased in Figure 2.)
     Our subject, this article, is the "Windmill Bank" (Figure 3). It reflects the popularity of farm and industrial themes employed by late nineteenth and early twentieth century mechanical bank manufacturers, both in this country and abroad. The "Windmill Bank" is but one of a series of rare and desirable brightly lithographed tin plate mechanicals believed to have been produced some time during the years 1900-1935. To date, no patent papers or manufacturers' catalogs featuring the "Windmill Bank" have been located. However, several of its overall mechanical and design characteristics are similar to other tin lithographed mechanical banks created by the Saalheimer and Strauss Tin Works of Ntirnberg, Germany. It is, therefore, an assumption that "Windmill Bank" was possibly a product of that company.
     Of interest is the fact that, although all European windmills were similar in mechanics and design, several countries exhibited dissimilar structures. The windmills of the Netherlands (seen in Figure 1) are of a cylindrical shape. In contrast, the "Windmill Bank" (Figure 3), reflects a Germanic design: i.e. flat façade with arched roof. Pictured in Figure 4 is a nineteenth century windmill structure located in Colbitz-SaxonyAnholt, Germany. It is remarkably recognizable in shape and design to our subject, lending further support to the assumption that the bank is of German origin.
     Figure 5 represents an early Saalheimer and Strauss sales flyer, circa 1900-1935. In it are offered several lithographed tin plate mechanicals. Noticeable and undeniable is the similarity between "Windmill Bank" and four of the represented mechanicals, namely "Scotsman", "Minstrel", "Bonzo", and "Jolly Joe the Clown".
     Operation of "Windmill Bank" is initiated by inserting a coin through its roof. Simultaneously, the money descends into the mechanical, striking an internal flywheel, thereby causing the sails of the windmill to perform several revolutions. Deposits are recovered by opening the key lock, trapdoor-type coin retainer located underneath the base of the bank.
     To my knowledge, none of the known Saalheimer and Strauss mechanical banks, as well as our subject, has been reproduced. However, this does not preclude the possibility of reproduced or replaced fragile components, i.e. roof, sails, or base. Needless to say, in such instances, the value of the bank is somewhat compromised.
     Despite its tin plate construction and diminutive size (Height: 6-3/4 inches. Width: 2-3/4 inches), "Windmill Bank" is an extremely desirable, rare and attractive addition to a mechanical bank collection.

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